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Development of maritime transport in Vietnam until 2020 and orientation 2030
Vietnam has an important geographical location in Asia, located in the region has a network of carriage of goods by sea the most dynamic in the world. On the other hand, with more than 3.260km coastline, Vietnam has great potential in the development of maritime transport and other services related to the sea.

However, the fact that sea transport in our country has not developed properly Games and also contains many challenges. Therefore, the construction of strategic network development of maritime transport and related infrastructure for our country is an urgent requirement and necessary to bring Vietnam's sea transport integration and take positions worthy of sea transport network in Asia and the world.

Current situation of Vietnam's seaport system

Our country currently has 39 ports are divided into 6 groups. Group 1: northern seaport from Quang Ninh to Ninh Binh. Group 2: North Central from Thanh Hoa to Ha Tinh; Group 3: Central Central Coast from Quang Binh to Quang Ngai; Group 4: South Central from Binh Dinh to Binh Thuan; Group 5: South East and Group 6: The Mekong Delta. The port is also designed special, delimited into three categories: General Port national, local ports (a range of attractive and mainly serve the function within the locality) and specialized ports ( direct service for industrial enterprises concentrated and goods through the port have specific characteristics such as crude oil, coal and ore). According to the Vietnam Seaports Association, the growth rate of goods and commodities, especially container transport by sea is growing at extremely high speeds, over 20% per annum in the period 2001-2008. However, distribution of goods shipped through the ports system is uneven, concentrated primarily in the area of Hai Phong, Quang Ninh and Ho Chi Minh City. Meanwhile, other regional ports are operating below capacity due to lack of loading and unloading goods. In addition, the rate of new construction and upgrading of major ports are not kept pace with the development of goods, leading to severe overcrowding of the seaports.

Vietnam's seaports addition, there are some drawbacks and challenges: Because of the history of Vietnam's major ports are located near large cities and in the deep side of the estuary region where the influence by alluvial and tidal. Therefore, the large ships can not access deep water line of this port system for loading goods. Narrow area of urban expansion makes storage systems as well as development of infrastructure systems related difficulties. Vehicle handling and warehousing system with limited capacity have reduced speed cargo through the port. Logistics distribution system is underdeveloped inland, poor and inefficient operations, helped increase the total cost of freight. Fewer services related to ports and maritime transport. Vietnam currently does not have a class transshipment port area, which makes the goods exported to markets in Western Europe and North America have to transit at the port of Singapore and Malaysia, to the costs of transport to 20%.

Development orientations of Vietnam's seaport

"Development of maritime transport in the direction of modernization with the increasing quality, affordable, safe and limit environmental pollution and save energy and increase the competitiveness of maritime transport for active integration market entry and expansion of maritime transport in the region and the world "-which is one of the objectives of development planning shipping to Vietnam in 2020 and orientation to 2030 approved by the Prime Minister Decision No. 1601/QD-TTg on 15/10/2009. Planning also highlighted the objectives of Vietnam's sea strategy to 2020, the maritime economy and the 2020 second maritime economic leader in 5 areas of marine economic development at the same time contribute to strengthening security and defense of the country.

Based on the analysis of the factors affecting the success of the port and port development trends in Asia - Pacific and Vietnam, along with the establishment of development planning system Vietnam's sea ports 2020, 2030 is oriented to the development of maritime navigation and sea ports Vietnam concentrated on maritime transport, improving the quality of shipping services to meet shipping needs inland, raising freight market share of import and export reached 27-30%, combined rental of foreign goods on the distant sea routes. Volume Vietnam by fleets take around 110-126 million tons in 2015; 215-260 million tons in 2020 and in 2030 increased by 1.5-2 times compared with 2020, passenger traffic reached 5 million in 2015; 9-10 million in 2020 and in 2030 increased 1.5 times compared with 2020. Development fleets in modern Vietnam, focusing on development of specialized vessels (container ships, bulk cargo, oil ...) and large vessels. In 2010 a total load of 6 to 6.5 million DWT in 2015 with a total tonnage of 8.5 to 9.5 million DWT by 2020 from 11.5 to 13.5 million dwt. Gradually rejuvenate the fleet by 2020, Vietnam The average age of 12 years. Shipbuilding industry, by 2020, developing shipbuilding industry reached an advanced country in the region, building the ships and 300,000 DWT cargo, the passenger ships, oil services ship, boat and rescue, maritime security, works ... Orientation on the seaport system in the coming period, in addition to upgrading and in-depth investment, develop their capacity and efficiency of existing ports, should focus on building an international entrepot , international gateway ports in key economic areas, a dedicated deep-water port of loading and unloading container, coal, ore and oil and large-scale, modern equipment ...

International trade between Vietnam and the world has flourished, and this is really becoming a very favorable condition for the development of maritime transport sector of Vietnam. And in the process of development, the development requirements of sea transport in the direction of modernization with the increasing quality, affordable, safe and limit environmental pollution and save energy, increase competitiveness of maritime transport is essential for Vietnam's sea transport industry can actively integrate and expand the shipping market in the region and worldwide. /.
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